Product Design with - Agile - Lean - Kanban

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Product Design with - Agile - Lean - Kanban
(安博)Bernard Szlachta (
Product Design with - Agile - Lean - Kanban

Bernard Szlachta 2016 All Rights Reserved - 08:34, 2 October 2017

My and Agile/Lean/Kanban ⌘

  • Mostly software
  • Nagravision - security devices, TV boxes
  • Hardware + Low level software (not snazy website)

Problems ⌘

  • Miss deadlines
  • Nothing comes out
  • overbudget
  • Unused funcioanltiy
    • Due to requirements changed
    • Requirements where never clear

Examples of Lean Design in Product (not only software) ⌘

Well Documented
My Experience
  • Nagravision
  • Google

Lean 精益 ⌘

What is Lean ⌘

Types of Lean ⌘

  • Lean Manufacturing (Toyota)
  • Lean in Design
  • Lean in Software

LEAN Thinking 精益思想 ⌘

Five Principles of LEAN ⌘

James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones "Lean Thinking"

  1. 价值观 (Value)
  2. 价值流 (Value Stream)
  3. 流动 (Flow)
  4. 拉动 (Pull)
  5. 尽善尽美 (Perfection)

Using Lean in R&D ⌘

System Thinking (from Deming) ⌘

300p'x Image: from mediawiki

System Thinking Tenets ⌘

  • Interdependence (nothing is independent)
  • Holism (analysis of a interdpendent components as a whole, not as separate subsystem)
  • Goal Seeking - the System has a goal
  • Inputs and Outputs - determin the boundary of a system
  • Hierarchy

Usage ⌘

  • Business Optimization (Lean, JIT, Supply Chain, etc...)
  • Impact analysis (Tsunami in Japan on business in the UK)
  • Engineering optimization (e.g. remove printing invoices rather than improve process of printing them)

Plan driven vs. Value driven ⌘

加农炮 vs 导弹,_Ch%C3%A2teau_du_Haut-Koenigsbourg,_France.jpg

Team Power ⌘

Innovation curve ⌘


Decision Innovation Process ⌘



Comparison of iterative methodologies ⌘

Why things go wrong ⌘

The LEAN approach ⌘

Lean 精益生产 ⌘

  • 消除浪费
  • 增强学习
  • 尽量延迟决定
  • 尽快发布
  • 下放权力
  • 嵌入质量
  • 全局优化

敏捷方法 Agile ⌘


  • 个体和互动 高于 流程和工具
  • 工作的软件 高于 详尽的文档
  • 客户合作 高于 合同谈判
  • 响应变化 高于 跟进计划


Agile Inverted Triangle ⌘


Successful Project ⌘

  • Successful project is not necessarily a project that goes exactly as expected, yielding results identical to those that were predicted.
  • Scrum controls the process of software development to guide work toward the most valuable outcome possible.

Kanban ⌘

  • WIP
  • Visibility

Conection with the above ⌘

Lean Agile Scrum Kanban
消除浪费 工作的软件 高于 详尽的文档 All WIP限制
增强学习 个体和互动 高于 流程和工具 Restrospective
尽量延迟决定 响应变化 高于 跟进计划 backlogs设计,队员决定
尽快发布 段迭代 3周Sprint WIP Limits
下放权力 自我团队 自我团队
嵌入质量 客户合作 高于 合同谈判 会议
全局优化 Interdiciplinary team



Scrum ⌘

Scrum ⌘

  • Scrum是一种Agile的方法

Kanban ⌘

  • Limit WIP
Planned Doing [Limit 5] Finished - not tested [Limit 3] Done
Story 1 Story 3 Story ... 。。。
Story 2 Story 4
.... Story 5
Story 6
Story 7

Scrum ⌘


ST vs Gloucester - Match - 23.JPG

Scrum过程 ⌘


This image should be change (may have copyright issue + Daily meeting looks too official (should be circle

Scrum被谁采用 ⌘

  • 百度
  • IBM
  • 微软
  • 谷歌
  • 飞利浦
  • 西门子
  • 诺基亚
  • 英国广播公司
  • 美国第一资本投资国际集团
  • Nagra Vision
  • Lockheed Martin

Scrum被运用的领域 ⌘

Scrum 结构框架 ⌘

  • 产品负责人 (Product Owner, PO, 产品所有者)
  • ScrumMaster (Scrum大师)
  • 团队 (The Team)
  • 迭代计划 (Scrum Planning)
  • 迭代验收 (评审会, Evaluation, Presentation)
  • 迭代回顾 (反思会, Retrospective, Review)
  • 每天召开的 scrum 会议 (每日立会, Daily Scrum, Scrum)
  • 产品backlog (产品待开发项,Product Backlog)
  • 迭代backlog (迭代待开发项, Sprint Backlog)
  • 进度曲线图 (燃尽图,Burn-down Chart)

Pigs and Chickens ⌘


  • The people who fill the three Scrum roles are those who have committed to the project (Pigs)
  • Others might be interested in the project, but they aren’t on the hook (Chickens)

Product owner (1h) ⌘

Product Owner ⌘

  • Responsible for representing the interests of everyone with a stake in the project and its resulting system
  • Achieves initial and ongoing funding for the project by creating:
    • project’s initial overall requirements
    • return on investment (ROI) objectives
    • release plans
  • The list of requirements is called the Product Backlog
  • The most valuable functionality is produced first
  • Prioritize the Product Backlog to queue up the most valuable requirements for the next iteration

The customer representative ⌘

  • Ideally if PO is a curstomer itself
  • If it is not possible, PO should be able to make decision on behalf of the customer without delay

Product Owner Responsibilities ⌘

An extract from

  • The PO is responsible for maximizing the value of the product and the work of the Development Team
  • The PO is the sole person responsible for managing the Product Backlog (PB)
  • Product Backlog management includes:
    • Clearly expressing PB items (PBI);
    • Ordering the items in the PB to best achieve goals and missions;
    • Ensuring the value of the work the Development Team performs;
    • Ensuring that the PB is visible, transparent, and clear to all, and shows what the Scrum Team will work on next;
    • Ensuring the Development Team understands items in the Product Backlog to the level needed
  • The PO may do the above work, or have the Development Team do it
  • However, the PO remains accountable.
  • The PO is one person, not a committee
  • The entire organization must respect his or her decisions.
  • The PO’s decisions are visible in the content and ordering of the PB
  • No one is allowed to tell the Development Team to work from a different set of requirements, and the Development Team isn't allowed to act on what anyone else says

Prioritizing product requirements ⌘

  • The lower the priority the less details are needed
  • Some can be extremely vague e.g. Users can see related content (not defining what related content is or where a user will see it)
  • Some authors recommend 20/30/50 rule, where
  • 20% of stories are concrete and ready to roll
  • 30% are epics which will be split out into smaller fine grained ones
  • The last 50% are themes, vague ideas about long term product direction and people should not put much effort as they almost always change.

Backlog Prioritization Factors ⌘

  • Business Value
  • Time Value
  • Dependency Constraint
  • Technical Constraint
  • Political Constraint
  • Technological Development

Acceptance criteria DoD ⌘

  • Product is complete
  • Product prototpye is tested by testers
  • Product can by used by the end user or integrated with another product
  • Automated standard tests passed
  • Acceptance tests passed
  • Demonstrated functionality to Product Owner— received interim “Thumbs Up”

Negotiating sprint contents ⌘

  • Split Epics into Stories
  • Create Scenarios
  • Add technical Stories
  • Estimate (Estimation (Planning) Poker)

Initial Backlog Planning Meeting ⌘=

  • Happens before the project starts
  • PO + Stakeholders (customers, sponsors, etc..)
  • Activities:
    • Define scope of the project
    • Write a couple of epics
    • Chose Epics to go into first sprint
    • Write a couple user stories
    • Decide on the team(s) size

Backlog Grooming Meetings ⌘

  • Can happen anytime
  • PO + Stakeholders (customers, sponsors, etc..)
  • Activities:
    • Write user stories, epics, etc...
    • Break down user stories that are too big (epics)
    • Improve user stories that are poorly written
    • Estimate backlog items
    • Add acceptance criteria
    • Remove outdated stories
    • Agree on priority

Group exercise to produce customer requirements and write stories based on the requirements ⌘

  • Write a simple product backlog using wiki (TODO: shall we set up wiki with ALTRAN logo?)

The sprint (3h) ⌘

Scrum Process ⌘

Scrum Process 2.png

Sprint backlog ⌘

  • User stories
    • Business value
    • How to test it (acceptance criteria)‏
  • Different schools about complexity
    • Abstract size (0,1,2,3,5,8)‏
    • Number of IDEAL days - A day in life of developer where he has everything he needs to complete the job with no disturbance.
  • Planning poker
  • Splitting User stories into task
  • Task duration from 1 hour up to 1 day. If its gets longer, it is advisable to break it further.

Sprint planning: what to do ⌘

  • Estimating and Planning (4+1)‏
    • Define clear goals
    • Everyone (not only the person who are going to develop it) MUST understand the task
    • Everyone can contribute their way they see is the best
  • Daily Scrums (15min every day)‏
  • Demonstration (1h)‏
  • Retrospection – post-mortem (1h)‏

Sprint planning how to do it ⌘

Planning Poker⌘

  • Everyone selects complexity from Planning Poker Card
  • Two extreme people explain why they thought this way
  • Discussion
  • Optional re-vote
  • You can play poker for estimated time and estimated business value

Planning Poker Cards.png

Planning Poker Game.png

Precision vs Accuracy ⌘

  • Precise but not accurate PI number: 3.12134352343435
  • Accurate but not precise number PI number: 3.14
  • Try to be accurate not precise
  • Precision gives false confidence about estimation

What happens during a sprint ⌘



Product Burn-down Chart ⌘

ProductBurndown.png VelocityCurve.png

Sprint Burn-down Chart ⌘


Agile-burn-down-chart3.png Agile-burn-down-chart4.png

Tools ⌘


Post-it vs tools ⌘

  • Tools can confine your choices
  • Post-its are simple and always visible
  • Tools are recommended when you work with an outsourced teams’ members

Iteration Duration and Team Velocity ⌘

  • Do not change the duration of an iteration!
  • What if we discovered new tasks to do in order to complete user story?
  • Measurement – hours or finished tasks
  • What does it mean done
  • Overtime
  • Adjusting next iteration

Group exercise to plan a sprint ⌘

Scrum Master (3h) ⌘

Scrum Master and Scrum Implementation ⌘

  • Responsible for the Scrum process
  • Teaching Scrum to everyone involved in the project
  • Implementing Scrum so that it fits within an organization’s culture and still delivers the expected benefits
  • Ensuring that everyone follows Scrum rules and practices
  • Manager drives the team vs Scrum Master serves the team
  • Scrum Master is a facilitator

Maintaining documentation ⌘

Daily Scrums (Stand up meeting)⌘


  • The questions must be asked:
    • What have I done since the last Daily Scrum?
    • What am I going to do between now and the next Daily Scrum?
    • What is preventing me from doing my work?
  • People MUST stand
  • Up to 15 min regardless of the team size
  • Everyone invited, only pigs are talking

When to pair program ⌘

  • Possibility of being stuck is high
  • When two skillset is required (e.g. integration of two system/techonologies)
  • When skillet is not even (mini-training) - arguable

Group exercise to implement Scrum ⌘

Finishing a sprint (3h) ⌘

Scrum review meeting ⌘

  • PO
  • Customer representative
  • The Team
  • Scrum Muster
  • Other stakeholders
release vs improve

产出潜在可交付的产品增量(potential shippable product incremental - PSPI

  • is testable by the end user
  • an be release to the public
  • safety certification can or cannot be included depends on the probability of failiing the test (if you do drugs, it required, for computer screen less likely so)

Scrum retrospective meeting ⌘

  • Participants: Team members, Scrum Master, (optionally PO, but it is internal team business to improve their process)
  • Is previous improvement effective?
  • What did we do right? (keep it)
  • What should we avoid? (throw it away)
  • What should we try next time? (how to improve)

Group exercise the review a sprint ⌘


Kanban (1h) ⌘

Factory model ⌘

  • Hirerachical Structure
  • Matrix Structure

Pillars of Kanban & Big Picture ⌘

Process ⌘

Concepts behind Kanban ⌘

Kanban Rules &Metrics ⌘

Flow Diagram+ technical practices  ⌘

The Team ⌘

Shared responsibility ⌘

Self-organization & Interdisciplinary ⌘

Benefit the "right" team work ⌘

Kanban Board ⌘

How to visualize process? & How to create Kanban Board? ⌘

What are and how to introduce WIP limits? ⌘

What are and how to introduce Classes of Service? ⌘

Customer Engagement ⌘

The most common waste ⌘

Value Stream ⌘

Product Discovery Methods and Tools (1h) ⌘

  • Golden Circle
  • Impact mapping
  • Design Thinking
  • User story mapping

Golden Circle 1 ⌘

What does your company do?
How do they do it?
Why your company what they do?

Golden Circle 2 ⌘

  • What
  • How
A bit better way
  • Why
  • How
  • What

Golden-Cirle.svg More:

Impact Mapping ⌘



User Story Mapping ⌘