Drupal 7 Themes

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Title

Drupal 7 Themes
Author
Lukasz Sokolowski (NobleProg Ltd)
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Drupal 7 Themes          Lukasz Sokolowski (NobleProg Ltd)


Drupal 7 Themes

Drupal 7 Themes Training Materials


Installing Existing(Contributed) Themes ⌘

Very similar way like installing modules.
We can do it:

  • manually from 'drupal.org'
  • via 'drush dl'
  • in our website in configuration 'Appearance/Install new theme'

After installation we can just 'Enable' or 'Enable and set default' in Appearance section in management menu.

Drupal 7 themes garden(nice demo):
(http://www.opennomad.com/drupal-themes/about)

Manual theme installation ⌘

Manually download the theme package and uncompress its content 'into sites/all/themes'.
You can use browser and GUI(files navigator) or command line tools like 'wget' and 'tar' .

Exercise 1 ⌘

Find 'Mayo' theme in 'drupal.org' site and install it manually.
Play a while with it's plenty bunch of options.

Exercise 2 ⌘

Install 'Zen' theme via drush.

Modifying an existing Theme ⌘

We can copy for example one of default Drupal core themes like Bartik or Stark.

Then place it into 'sites/all/themes', rename all convenient files and change files: css, templates, js, images, etc.

This is the simplest way to create our theme without much effort.

Exercise 3 ⌘

Let's create 'BlaBla' theme.

Changes to do:

  • Copy Bartik theme from 'your_website/themes' to 'sites/all/themes'
  • Find all instances of 'bartik' name in all copied files and replace it with 'blabla'
  • Make site name font '24px' and site slogan 'red' (style.css)

Subthemes ⌘

Themes which can inherit css, js, etc from base theme and override those files, partly or completely.

(https://www.drupal.org/node/225125)

Exercise 4 ⌘

Create sub-theme with 'Zen' theme:

  • Drush way:
    • enable 'zen' theme and refresh all caches 'drush cc all'
    • in command line(terminal) type 'drush zen "Cosmic Science" cosmicscie' and press 'Enter'
    • enable and set default the theme 'Cosmic Science'
    • (https://www.drupal.org/node/2021609)
  • Manual way (loooooong):
  • Override at least one css file in your sub-theme

Theme system ⌘

The theme system, which controls the output of Drupal.

(https://api.drupal.org/api/drupal/includes%21theme.inc/7)

Themable drupal elements (via theme function or template file):

http://api.drupal.org/api/group/themeable/7

Theme engines ⌘

Drupal 7 available engines:

PHPTemplate Engine ⌘

Handles integration of PHP templates with the Drupal theme system.

(https://api.drupal.org/api/drupal/themes%21engines%21phptemplate%21phptemplate.engine/7)

Creating a new theme from scratch ⌘

Let's create 'Difficult Dirty' theme.

General steps:

  1. Create or modify an HTML file(s)
  2. Create or modify a CSS file(s)
  3. Create an .info file
  4. Standardize the file names according to Drupal conventions
  5. Insert available variables into template
  6. Create additional files for individual node types, blocks, etc

File .info ⌘

Example:

name = Theme Name
core = 7.x

; Regions
regions[headers] = Header
; css
stylesheets[all][] = css/style.css
; js
scripts[] = js/jcarousel.js
; Settings
; - download 'nexus' theme and look for settings in its nexus.info file
; settings[breadcrumbs]  = 1

Related theme settings docs:

(https://www.drupal.org/node/221905)

Exercise 5 ⌘

Create theme 'Difficult Dirty' from scratch:

  • make dir here 'your_site/sites/all/themes/difficultdirty'
  • in newly created dir add file 'difficultdirty.info' with following content and enable the theme and test the website:
name = Difficult Dirty
description = Scratchy DD theme
core = 7.x

CSS file ⌘

To simplify process and speed up things (one day course) we will use parts of existing theme called 'Simple Clean'.

Exercise 6 ⌘

Prepare css file:

  • download 'simpleclean' theme (drush dl), but do not enable it
  • copy its 'style.css' file into 'your_site/sites/all/themes/difficultdirty/css'
  • in file 'difficultdirty.info' add line 'stylesheets[all][] = style.css'
  • refresh theme registry
  • test the website

Theme functions ⌘

Related materials:

http://training-course-material.com/training/Drupal_7_for_Developers#Presentation_layer_.E2.8C.98

Structure of a Drupal Page ⌘

TplFlow.png

Template Files ⌘

Main template files we usually want to override(they have sets of variables):

  • html.tpl.php modules/system
  • page.tpl.php modules/system
  • node.tpl.php modules/node
  • region.tpl.php modules/system
  • block.tpl.php modules/block
  • field.tpl.php modules/field/theme

List of available template files:

(https://www.drupal.org/node/190815)

Exercise 7 ⌘

Override 'page.tpl.php' in our 'Dirty' theme:

  • we want to put additional static message 'Hack, I'm soooo dirty!' in footer, but only on front page
    • copy 'modules/system/page.tpl.php' into 'sites/themes/difficultdirty/templates'
    • use '$is_front' variable to determine if user is on front page
    • add message in footer's div

Template suggestions ⌘

Functions which suggest some possible changes to theme registry:

  • _process_
  • _preprocess_

We usually add them in 'template.php' file.

EXAMPLE: Load different 'page.tpl.php' regarding to node type

function ThemeName_preprocess_page(&$vars, $hook) {
  if (isset($vars['node'])) {
    $vars['theme_hook_suggestions'][] = 'page_'. $vars['node']->type;
  }
}

Related docs:



Devel Module(s), Other Helpers ⌘

devel/theme/registry


devel_themer


Theme debug mode:

  • in file 'settings.php' add line
    $conf['theme_debug'] = TRUE;
  • inspect or view source

Firefox tools ⌘

Plugins - Firebug and Webdeveloper

'Drupal for firebug' module